In the Beginning…The Brief History of UNIX

UNIX first began when it escaped the AT&T office basements in the 1960’s with love notes from software writer Ken Thompson. Lightning flashed, the ground churned, and oceans boiled. The rest, is history…

Seriously though, UNIX systems are the backbone of modern programming; sure it’s all updated, but UNIX is responsible for major changes in the way we view technology. UNIX first began in the 1960’s as an idea for an operating system that was intended to be used to file source, locate, and translate data; however AT&T (the original creators- then called Multics) and the Bell Company decided to scrap the project because it was too costly and the operations were too large for their needs; the operating systems that they used to process data were very large and very, very expensive.


At the time, it wasn’t cost effective to use the software, since it required more memory to operate than computers originally could handle, which was 4 kilobytes. Because of a legal decree in 1956, AT&T was forbidden to enter the computer business, therefore they had to give away non-computer related technology to anyone who asked, as well as AT&T releasing it to the United States government, universities and other commercial industries. Unix was originally packaged all of the source code, which included the machine- dependent part of the kernel (the processor), which was written in PDP-11 assembly language. Shortly after its release to the public, in 1972, the software was rewritten in C programming language; which made it much more portable and easy to use and modify, because users only had to change bits and pieces of the original code to make it usable on multiple, smaller operating systems.

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Fort Knox- the Security Benefits of openBSD

How secure is too secure? This is a very important question to consider in a time in history where maximum security is the only thing stopping a potential hacker from breaking through your computer’s firewall to swipe your email passwords, hack into your Facebook and make statuses about your sexuality, and steal all of your money. Overall, OpenBSD offers the maximum security through the choices it offers a user. The openBSD motto consists of an insistence on open source code, quality documentation, software licensing agreements, security, and correct code verification. These particular restrictions prevent possible corruption of files. These restrictions include:



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A Brief Overview Of The Upcoming Windows 10 OS

When Windows 8 hit the shelves a lot of people found it to be less than stellar. It seemed like Microsoft had gone soft, a lot of people found the interface frustrating, and many had problems with program compatibility. Many users skipped Windows 8 entirely, and grimly hung on their Windows 7 while they waited to see what Microsoft would come up with next.


Well that wait is almost over. Microsoft has recently announced that the next version of Windows will be available sometime in the late months of 2015. Sounds like someone might be planning ahead for Christmas. This new operating system will be called Windows 10. The people at Microsoft were well aware that everyone expected a Windows 9 release. They decided to call it Windows 10 because they believe their latest offering goes a step beyond what people have come to expect from Windows.


Although it’s a bit early to tell, it appears that the people at Microsoft really listened to what users had to say about their Windows 8 experience. They were also aware that a lot of users refused to even try Windows 8, and kept 7 instead. One of the things that people complained about the most was what Microsoft did with the Start button in Windows 8. Those people at least will be happy to know that the Start button is back where it was in 7, except now you can do a lot more with it.

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How to Be a Part of the Technological Innovations

How to Be a Part of the Technological InnovationsEven when there are already a lot of innovations in technology, people really don’t just stop there. The ball keeps on rolling. Look at Operating Systems for example. There is really so much for you to do to get to know all about them, most especially that there are so many developments over the years. Have you heard about the iOS 9.3 Beta? How about the real time OS of the wearable Mini Robot that Intel is developing? They just keep on creating innovations after innovations based on existing OS, or creating new ones out of nothing at all.

With all that changes happening all around us, tech savvies and techno-geeks should also never get to miss the opportunity to learn about the recent developments and use that to be able to contribute to the changes happening. Thankfully, information dissemination is not really an issue nowadays, which means, getting the first task done is easy as pie. Again, thanks to the powerful network of information that we get to stream any time of the day. There are so many ways get to know about the latest news about tech developments and it really doesn’t matter whichever medium you would select to get your daily bites. Just make sure that you would always remember to take the time to read and learn about them more.

After you digest all those information, the second part of the challenge comes in. This is where you would be able to get a chance to look back at how things were before and maybe, just maybe get inspired to do something better out all the innovations that are coming out like mushrooms.

Take time to read and to be adventurous in what you read

Reading takes us to places we didn’t even know exists or you get to learn about something that you are not really familiar with. In some cases, you get to look for something interesting to learn about, say a new tool. So you Google something like the best chainsaw reviews and guide or the best chainsaw buying guide, and voila, information is served with just a click of your fingers.

There are just so many information waiting to be accessed by people like you, just bear in mind that you should also equip yourself with the skills to know how to filter what you read. Not everything that you read is real down in the cyberspace, so make sure that you take time to read them. Challenge your mind to question the facts being presented.

Draw valuable ideas from what you read

Dare yourself to be a part of that change. We’ve seen lots of people succeeding in Start-up businesses, or individuals who eventually make it big in the cyber community through their contribution. If you can, don’t just stand in the sidelines watching everything come to play.

Look for something that you can innovate, think outside of the box and used what you know from the history of the developments to fuel another great venture. Who knows if you get written with that history as well and generations after you would be using your innovation to be the baseline of their work too.

Dealing with the Intensity of Working in a Tech Industry

Dealing with the Intensity of Working in a Tech Industry

There are a lot of tech giants around the world today. Those who are highly skilled in terms of graphic design, computer programming and other related skills, are hired to be a part of these companies. They also pay well since tech industries as a billion-dollar industry. However, despite the good remuneration packages, it can be a very stressful job. For instance, those who are working to improve operating systems are totally pressured to come up with something new. It must be a better version of older operating systems. If you are in this type of job, then you definitely are in for an intense work. There are a lot of ways in dealing with stress. One of them is to be more involved in workout exercises.

Try crossfit

When you have seen people doing crossfit exercises, you will be shocked. It is like taking workout to an entirely new level. You might not even dare giving it a try. However, the truth is that it can be done if you are willing to put your heart and mind into it. Before you know it, you have already mastered some of the higher level techniques. You just need to start with something basic and you move further along the way.

How is this beneficial

The reason why you need to give it a try is because the nature of your job is the same. Cross fit exercises are as intense as being in the tech industry. You need to up your game in order for you to survive. You need to do better every time. You also have to exhaust all your efforts and energies in order for you to get the job done. This is why you need to train yourself to cope up with stress. If you are able to handle the stress of doing cross fit exercises, then there is no reason why you can’t carry on with your job. If you are used to stress and intensity being a part of your life, then they won’t bother you anymore.

Getting started

Now that you have found a way to deal with stress at work, it is time to get started. In order to have a successful cross fit workout, you need to wear the right outfit. To begin with, you need a flexible fabric for your pants or shorts. You wanted to move freely so you don’t want something that is tight fitting, but not stretchable enough. When it comes to your footwear, you need to use cross fit shoes. They are designed for this specific purpose. Take note that cross fit may cause a lot of injuries. It is even worsened when you don’t wear the right shoes. Therefore, you need to compare the best crossfit shoes now so you can get the best one to use for your first workout. You can also check out the 10 best shoes for crossfit and use the one that you are most comfortable with. Once everything is ready, your crossfit exercise may now start.

The Importance of Speed in Today’s Time

The Importance of Speed in Today’s TimeWhether we admit it or not, we are already in a world where everything is fast-paced. If you can still recall when you were younger, things were a lot different. Everything in our world before was slow, laid back and calm. With our current lifestyle, speed is of prime importance. We cannot just move slowly or else we will be totally left out. You go out on the streets in the morning and people are in a hurry to go to work. Things have totally changes and we might not have even noticed it.

Let us just take a look at how things were before and how they are now in terms of the items that we use on a daily basis.


Can you still recall the first computer that you have used? Obviously, you have felt the difference between our computers then and now. Today, computers are a lot faster. Mobile devices are even used. This is also thanks to the kind of operating systems being used in computer today. They are a lot faster and an improvement of the ones used in the past. You no longer have to suffer from waiting for a long time just to get things done. Of course, we can also look back at how these operating systems have improved over the years and how some people worked really hard to give us the speed in using the computers we enjoy now.

Using juicers

Another example of how important speed is today is when preparing beverages. Back then, you might have to pick up fruits, slice them and squeeze the juice from them if you want a fresh fruit juice. Now, you can just pick anything from the grocery or convenience store and your drinks are already in a bottle. The same thing is true even for juicers today. You can still prepare your own fruit juice, but the process is a lot faster now. You just have to slice the fruit open and the juicer will do the rest of the job. It is not fast, but it also allows the maximum extraction of juice from the fruit. This will not waste vitamins and minerals that you can get from the fruits. Of course, this is only possible if you have the best juicer that you can find here. You can also check out juicer reviews and recommendations from other people to land the best juicer to be used at home.

Following the waves

Change is inevitable and you can do nothing to stop it. The only thing that you can do is to ride the wave. You know that these changes are bound to happen and there are even more drastic changes in the future. You just have to make the most out of it. Practice the use more modern computer operating systems. Learn how to use modern gadgets and devices. We can’t deny the importance of speed today, but we also need to find a way to slow things down and enjoy life as it is.

Advertising Your Double Stroller Business Online is Now a Lot Easier

Traveling Can be More Fun with a Double StrollerThere are a lot of businesses that are so popular today. This is true especially since they can now be advertised online. With the ability of people to shop online, businesses are making the most out of it through internet marketing. They make sure that everyone gets to see their business and eventually buy from them.

If it were in the past, this would have been very difficult. For instance, when you have a double stroller business, you might want to advertise it online, but it won’t look that appealing. The operating systems used back then are still poor and unattractive. They also load quite slowly. Therefore, if you wish to advertise anything online, you might not have it done your way. This can be very frustrating.

Today, everything is a lot better. You can just upload photos, write descriptions, post links, and write articles without any problem. Before you know it, a lot of people have already seen what you have advertised. Add to that the power of social media. It is easier for you to advertise via Facebook or Twitter now since people are so active. Imagine if you advertise your post via Facebook and you have 100 followers. Each of these followers may also have an average of 100 followers. If they share what you have posted or even share it, this would appear in other people’s newsfeed. By then, there is a greater chance for your business to be noticed.

What you need to do

Now that advertising online is very easy with the help of more modern operating systems, the only thing left for you to do is to improve your product and enhance your internet marketing techniques. Take note that there are a lot of other businesses that are also concentrating on babies’ needs. Therefore, you need to show everyone that you are the authority when it comes to your niche.

For instance, you can check out the 10 of the best double strollers out there and make sure that you only supply these products. They are on top because they are highly trusted by other people. They know that these products are of great quality. If you are a source of these products, then they can easily appreciate you. If not, you can check out the list of the best double stroller available here.

To top it all, you need to improve your internet marketing techniques. Take note that you cannot just close your eyes and think that people will come to you immediately and buy. You might have a good website, but it won’t immediately attract attention. You need to show to everyone that you are selling something of high quality and you are a trusted company. If you keep doing this, then it is easier for them to get what you have to offer.

Succeeding in an online business might be very difficult and challenging. However, you just need to push through. You have to face a lot of challengers so you need to come out on top.

Modern Operating Systems Make Online Shopping Easier and Faster

Modern Operating Systems Make Online Shopping Easier and Faster

Gone were the days when you had to wait for a long time just to load a tab when surfing the net. You have already done a lot of other things before something could be loaded. These days, mobile Internet surfing is already possible so you have access to the world anytime, anywhere.

One of the best reasons why this has become a positive change is because of online shopping. Everything can now be done online. If you wish to buy a certain item, you just have to look for it, place your order and pay it and wait for the items to be delivered straight to your home. You don’t need to go out or drive around just to look for that item. It might not even be found in your local stores.

Though this is a good thing, imagine what could have happened if you use it using Windows 2003. Imagine that you are shopping online but the operating system used is so old that you could barely do anything. Before you even finish shopping, you already got bored and angry. This is why with all the changes that has taken place; you should also look back at how modern operating systems have changed everything. If not for the changes made in the systems currently used, we might not enjoy modern innovations in the same way that we do now.

Click and go

With the help of these modern systems, everything can be done in a touch of a finger. When you want to shop for something, you just have to look for it and pay for the item. In less than 5 minutes, you are done. You can move on to your next task. Therefore, we have to thank those who have worked hard to evolve the operating systems constantly. In fact, the operating systems used in our mobile devices are also different than the ones used in the computers. They also evolve a lot faster. Hence, you can see changes immediately.

Now, all you have to do is to think of the items that you really need at home and buy it online. For instance, if you wish to clean up your house, then you can just buy a carpet cleaner. If you have visitors coming for the weekend, then the item should be ordered at least a week or so in order for it to arrive on time. If it has arrived, then you can go ahead and start cleaning. You can also start looking for buying guide for the best carpet cleaners so it will be easier for you to make your choice. You may also want to look at the top 10 best home carpet cleaner brands. Given the choices available, trimming down the options might be a bit difficult.

More to come

Rest assured, we are not yet seeing the best of operating systems. Before you know it, another one has arrived. If anything, this makes our tasks over in no time.

The Evolution of Operating Systems

The Evolution of Operating SystemsDo you remember the time when it is still very difficult to use the computer? Aside from its physical size, it is also difficult to use the program itself. The operating system used does not depict clear graphics on the monitor and the movement is really slow. Well, those days are behind us. Today, you have operating systems that are really good. They don’t crash that often anymore. Loading items can be very quick. You can enjoy the visuals as well as the arrangement of the icons.

However, even if times have changed, the crappy operating systems that you have used before, led to the ones that you have now. If you appreciate computers as they are now, then it is also largely because of the people who helped in building them. As always, we learn from our mistakes in the past and we find ways to improve them. Thus, if you are happy that you can read this article really quickly or you can easily close tabs without any problem at all, then you need to take time to look back and thank those developers who worked hard to change the way we use our computers today.

Adapting to changes

The reason why computer operating systems change rapidly is also because of the way computers are used today. Before, we only use computers to type files or save some items. Today, the internet is changing the world in many ways. We also use the internet more often now than ever. This is also the reason why these operating systems have to be changed. They need to adapt to the needs of the people. This is true especially since we do almost everything online today.

From banking to shopping, everything can be done using your fingertips. Mobile devices have also changed how operating systems work. There are operating systems designed to power your mobile devices. They are also improving much quicker done operating systems used in your computers. In the end, the goal is to make our lives better and more convenient. As users, we just get our devices and use them. We don’t realize that there were a lot of things done behind and we can only be grateful for the relentless efforts of those computer experts.

Use your computer wisely

These operating systems were improved so you can use the computer quickly and safely. They are not meant to allow you to do things that could harm other people. Therefore, you owe it to those who worked hard to use the computer properly. Use it to watch movies or get information that is educational. You can also use it to start a business to change your life. You can also use it to shop for items that you need. For instance, you can choose the best kitchen faucets that you can use at home. You may even read feedback from kitchen faucet reviews so you can land with the best choice. As long as you do things to make the most out of the operating systems, then it is good enough.

How Often Should You Shift to a More Modern Version of a Product?

How Often Should You Shift to a More Modern Version of a ProductIt is very common for us to see a new version of a product even if we have just seen the older version. This is how fast technology is nowadays. For instance, it was not so long ago before you have bought your iPhone 6, and now Apple has already launched a new model. They even have plans to release the new one soon. The same thing is true for other gadgets like laptops, tablets, flash drives and even operating systems. It was not long ago when Windows 8 was used and now Windows 10 is already in full operation. The next version might be out in no time. Even in simple items like watches, newer models are now available. Back then; we are already content with analog watches. Then, digital watches came to life and now we have smartwatches.


Should we buy right away?

When you read the features of the newer version or watch the ads, it is very easy for you to be convinced that you need to try one right away. Even if they seem really expensive, you will feel desperate to buy one. For instance, when smartwatches were released, people flocked to stores right away. Apple has its version and so are many other companies like Samsung and Google. However, before you join the fad, you need to be certain first that you are making the right decision. It pays a lot to read watch reviews you can find on this website. When you read what other people have to say about a certain model, then you will have a more informed decision in the end. If you want to find out about the best watches, then head on this site. However, you also need to be careful in choosing the material to read. Diversity your reading if possible to ensure that you can make better choices.


Do you really need it?

This is something that you need to answer first. Is the new version really that important? Is the old one already worn out or useless? Do you want to do this because you want to jump into the bandwagon? If you say yes, then you might have to take a step back and realize that everything is not about being trendy. You need to check out the use of the item first before saying that it is in your best interest to invest on the new one.


However, for items that are available for free, then you must have no second thoughts in getting the new one if you really need it. For instance, operating systems come and go really quickly. The good thing is that if you have installed an original version of an old operating system, you can get the new one for free. If you think the new one has better features and will work well with your current needs, then go ahead and give it a try. It would be a great decision since this is done because of its use and not just for fad.

The Etymology of The Term Computer/Software Bug

Note: This is a guest post from programmer and past exterminator Mark Jameson who writes at PestKilled.

The word “bug” is about as ubiquitous as the actual insects with which it shares a name. Amongst the software crowd and video game enthusiasts it’s the most done-to-death-yet-brought-back-to-life joke there is, “It’s not a bug, it’s a feature!” Everyone knows that when you’re talking about a bug you’re probably talking about an unintentional and detrimental behavior in your software, but not everyone knows how the word has come to mean what it means in the modern day. Like so many others colloquialisms we tend to take its definition for granted.

Some of the earliest uses of the word bug we can find come from the Middle English word “bugge,” meaning something frightening or monstrous but specifically describing a monster called a bugbear or a bugaboo. The bugbear was a sort of demonic bear purported to eat children. This definition fell out of favor in the early 17th century when the word was instead applied to insects, specifically bedbugs. This, in turn, led the word bug to take another of its modern uses: an annoyance (an evolution that occurred in the late 1940s). After the 17th century the word bugge survives only in its fossilized usage in bugbear.

Use of the word bug in the modern parlance likely began with Thomas Edison. In a letter to his associate Theodore Puskas Edison wrote that, “It has been just so in all my inventions. The first step is an intuition, and comes with a burst. Then difficulties arise. This thing gives out, then that. ‘Bugs,’ as such little faults and difficulties are called, show themselves.” So the Wizard of Menlo Park may be responsible for the evolution of the word as we use it today. As a matter of fact the use of the word “bug” as indicative of something that is annoying might have descended from Edison’s usage, rather than the other way around.

This early usage, however, applied to hardware. As a matter of fact it was actually common terminology in engineering circles long before it was ever used to describe software, its use predating computers by decades. The U.S. military during World War II, for example, used the words “bugs” and “glitches” to describe mechanical malfunctions in their weapons.

In its modern form, though, the use of “bug” to describe a software malfunction stems from story about Grace Hopper, a pioneering computer engineer who served in the U.S. Navy during World War II. As the story tells it, during her time at Harvard working on some of the earliest forms of modern computers engineers discovered that an error in the system of the Mark II electromechanical computer was caused by a moth which had become trapped in a relay. The team took the moth and, in filling out the report in their log book, taped it alongside the report of the malfunction. Hopper herself is often said to be the one who found the moth, though she readily volunteered that she was not. As well, some sources report this story as the ultimate source of the word “bug” as used in the context of malfunctions, ignoring or unaware of Edison’s previous usage.

So there you have it, from demonic bear to software malfunction.

A History of Telecom

I write a lot about operating systems and the people who make them. That is definitely my first love. I never get tired of talking and writing about that. I wish now I would have written a print book on it. I could have actually made some money instead of wasting my time writing on here for free! Oh well, hindsight is always 20/20.

I love anything to do with technology and I’d like to compare the history of operating systems and the history of telecommunications. They are definitely intertwined now that it is standard to have a computer with some sort of way to connect to the Internet. It wasn’t always this way though. Long before operating systems, there was the telephone.

What is Telecommunications

If you know anything about telecommunications, then you’ve heard of Alexander Graham Bell. He is the father of telecommunications. Many people don’t know this, but both of his parents were deaf. I would say this is something that obviously contributed to his love of inventing and communicating. He worked tirelessly on inventing a device that one could in his words “communicate with loved ones from across town”. He delivered on that promise on October 9, 1876 when he and Thomas Watson talked on a wire that stretched 2 miles from Cambridge to Boston.


The old acronym POTS, which means “plain old telephone service”, was basically what everyone had for the next 100 years or so. It was just 2 wires with some voltage added to them and a receiver on each end. That’s all people needed and cared about having. In the last 30 years or so that has changed dramatically. The Internet, on a public level at least, was born.

Gone also was one single telephone company that monopolized the market. Today there are over 800 telephone companies in the U.S. alone. Although now the term telephone company now encompasses a lot more than just POTS, today most of these companies are purely IP based. They also piggyback on the infrastructure of the “Ma Bell” companies like AT&T. An example is Broadconnect Telecom. They are the company I use for my SIP trunking and hosted PBX lines. They are an example of a company that doesn’t actually own the physical telephone lines you see outside. These are owned by your traditional telephone company. Broadconnect simply provides VOIP services that run digitally on these lines.

The Future

AT&T has already announced it will end landline service by 2020. Pictures of a telephone company technician with his old dial-set hooked into the copper pair will only be a memory. AT&T will join the other telephone companies in dealing strictly in IP-based telephony. This will be good news. As the years have gone by, the reliability of phone service has gone up because of the technology and quality of the wirelines. With strictly IP-based, there will no longer be the weaknesses of having to physically provide voltage over a line with a receiver on each end. We will simply each have our own digital pipe that we can all run whatever we want on.

Tips in Adjusting with a New Operating System

If it’s just a matter of using a new version of your old operating system, moving to Windows 8 from Windows 7 for example, you may only encounter a few manageable hiccups and inconveniences that you get accustomed to over time. However, if you move to an entirely different operating system, like moving to a Mac or Linux from a Windows computer, the shift may pose some challenges. The same can be said when you change your smartphone from an iPhone to an Android or Windows phone.

The following pointers should be useful in transitioning to a new operating system.

Using Guides

The developers of operating systems always want to have new users so they readily provide guides to help new adopters in finding their way around the OS. Apple, for instance, has a comprehensive online guide for those who are switching from PC to Mac. There are also several guides you can find online if you need help in shifting to Linux from PC or Mac. Just take note that Linux has multiple distributions (distros) and each has its own quirks and distinctive handling.

When it comes to smartphones and tablet computers, there are also many guides to find online. You can even find tools to help you move the data, configurations, and accounts you have from one phone to another. Samsung, for example, offers the Smart Switch tool to facilitate the smooth transitioning from one device or OS to Samsung’s ecosystem.

Of course, you can also refer to the informational materials that come with the new OS. They likely provide the most detailed guides you need. However, if you prefer concise presentations on what you should expect and watch out for in a new OS, it would be better to read credible guides published on tech sites.

Exploring the New System

Experience will always be the best teacher so make sure to take the time to explore the new system you are using. Don’t be afraid to click and browse around unless you are already messing up with the system configurations and files. You may want to find out how different a website looks on the new OS. For example, this jogging stroller site that features jogging stroller reviews may look different on a Linux Firefox browser when the plugins and extensions are not installed yet, compared to the one on your old system.

Arguably, the most important application in an OS will be the browser since it will be one of the applications you will most frequently use. It is also the one that will link you to the old system you have been using, since its controls and interface will most likely be not that different. You may just encounter differences in the site rendering like seeing the phrase double jogging stroller on the tab of this strolling review website instead of a different name or tag. Familiarize with the browser first as it is likely that the rest of the new OS interface will be similar to the browser’s. Also, if you need help, the browser would be your way to find help or troubleshooting guides online.

Read guides and explore: these are the most important tips you need to adjust with a new OS. It shouldn’t be too difficult doing these.